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Hakan Kırkoğlu - The Future China: China's next revolution 2012, part 3

Cultural Revolution

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to the brink of civil war.

It was launched by the Communist Party of China's Chairman, Mao Zedong on May 16, 1966, officially as a campaign to rid China of its liberal bourgeoisie elements and to continue revolutionary class struggle. It is widely recognized, however, as a method to regain control of the party after the disastrous Great Leap Forward led to a significant loss of Mao's power to rivals Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, and would eventually manifest into waves of power struggles between rival factions both nationally and locally.

Chart 5: Outer wheel 16 May 1966 Inner wheel natal China

If we study the transits during the launch of Cultural Revolution, we come across that Neptune’s conjunct with MC. Essentially, this was the culmination of efforts since the time of unsuccessful Great Leap Forward movement and it reflects the eventual results of Mao’s campaign, his insistence on ideals. It is interesting to note that south node transiting over MC as well. South node transits signify something from the past lurking and these are not fortunate times to push for the future. Uranus and Pluto which were significant in the synastry, here again seen on conjunct with Saturn. Such a major mundane conjunction in Virgo (the sign of workers and servants) is expected to be active over Saturn which signify the conditions of the peasents and Chinese people. Transiting Mars and Sun together, seems to be here as short term triggers of the event. 

Chart 6: Outer wheel Sec. Progressed positions of 16 May 1966, Inner wheel natal China

In terms of secondary progressions, this was period of a waning lunar cycle and the progr. Sun was about to leave Libra in the 9th house. The whole 9th house progression was to show itself as a cultural and ideological paradigm which was actually ending, weakening. It is interesting to note that, during 1965-1966 China had been experiencing its 5th house /Gemini profection and Red Guards were the student activists who tried to accelarate the socialist reconstruction. The decision thus took the already existing student movement and elevated it to the level of a nationwide mass campaign, calling on not only students but also the masses of the workers, peasants, soldiers, revolutionary intellectuals, and revolutionary cadres to carry out the task of transforming the superstructure by writing big-character posters and holding great debates. One of the main focuses of the Cultural Revolution was the abolishment of the Four Olds: Old Customs, Old Culture, Old Habits, and Old Ideas. The decision granted people the most extensive freedom of speech the People's Republic has ever seen, but this was a freedom severely determined by the Maoist ideological climate and, ultimately, by the People's Liberation Army and Mao's authority over the Army.

Arrival of Deng Xiaoping

When Mao died on Sep 9th, 1976, transiting Pluto crossing over China’s natal Sun in Libra and Uranus already entered into the 10th house. And Chiron was entering to the 4th house. Also note that, same Uranus transit over the progressed Sun in Scorpio. Deng Xiaoping, who was purged twice during the Cultural Revolution (once at the beginning; once again right before Mao died);eventually emerged as the paramount leader in 1978, and promptly launched his economic reform program. Deng became the president on March 5th 1977. During this period, we witnesses transit Jupiter at IC and progressed Moon return in Aquarius. Please note that progressed Sun partilly trining to natal Uranus.

After 1978, when Deng Xiaoping gradually began to introduce market oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision making, China has sustained a blistering rate of economic growth, an average of almost 10% a year in the last three decades which no country in history did. This is a performance more than Japan or Asian tigers achieved over the similar periods. Deng came into power on March the 5th, 1977. In this period, in the secondary progression we witness prog. Sun trine to Uranus, from the 10th house to the 6th, Sun-trine Uranus was heralding a swift change in the direction of the country and major reforms. Moreover, in the same time, it was a period of crisis in action by the waxing square which is the first quarter of the Moon, Moon was progressing in the first house, where it was located in the natal. It is interesting to note that, it was also the year of Mars progressed into the sign of Virgo, the sign of workers and manufacturing industries. 

Chart 7: Outer wheel Transits of 5 March 1977 Inner wheel natal China

When Deng came into power, Jupiter transiting the bottom of the chart, just over the IC and Saturn has crossed above the horizon, where China has also the most of the planets in the natal. We may presume that, the last 30 years, a full circle of Saturn, has had coincided with Sun progression in the 10th house Scorpio, which gave consistency and stubborn efforts. Now we are about to have another Saturn return, and this time Sun progressing in Sag in the 11th house. This is a totally new picture. Globalization and unrigid, more flexible characteristics has been the major issues of the administration since the Sun has progressed in to Sag in 2002. Probably its effect has been experienced just 3 years before, starting from 1999. It is interesting to note that, natal China has a very week mutableness, only Saturn, Asc ruler, in Virgo. So we might ask what has been happening between 1999 and 2002 and we could project these new directions to the future. 

Deng was a formidable opponent. As a veteran of the revolution he had considerable legitimacy, as a former army commander, regional bureau chef and general secretary of the party he had an unequally network to Access and mobilise and he had the better argument. China did not want more of the same. It did not want to follow Mao’s whatever. By that time, its neighbours Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore had established an enviable pattern of economic growth. Deng had seen peasants and state enterprises respond to incentives in the pragmatic reconstruction after the Great Leap Forward. His initial objective was clear and he wanted to get the party out of the day to day management of communes, state owned enterprises, education and culture, instead allowing managers to take responsibility, respond to incentives and raise growth and productivity. The party commited itself to modernisation, broad based economic development and the rule of the law rathet than the class struggle, further peasants collectivisation. 

The centerpiece of economic development has been the ability to maintain investment at a stunning 35-40 percent of the GDP for 25 years, this was higher than that of Korea and Japan.In the international front, United States and China opened the full diplomatic relations. Washington severed its formal ties with Taiwan and to accept the United States rules fort he international game in trade, finance and investment. 

Within the 20 years of presidency of Deng, progressed Sun arrived to the MC point, thus crossing over the whole fixed sign of Scorpio. Generally, the last 3 degrees of any sign, in the progressions prepares the ways of the next progressed sign in this case it is Sagittarius. When Deng died in 1997, progressed Sun was at the culmination point, at MC. We can say that Scorpio progression brought the massive transformation the countries objectives and its place in the world as Scorpio is the 10th house. 

Progressed newmoon in Scorpio occured in 1999 at 27 degree of Scorpio and this degree was at sextile with Jupiter in Capricorn. The sign of administration and long term planning, industrialisation. Between 1997 and 1999, Hong Kong take over by China had been completed, and just before progression into Sag China, joined the World Trade Organization. It was a further tribute to the liberalisation initiated by Deng.

After Deng

After Deng’s farewell, Jiang Zemin became the new general secretary of the party. His objective transformed the the party’s objective from building a planned socialist commodity economy to a socialist market economy which was already agreed on in 1993 14th party Congress. 1993 was the period of progresssed last quarter of the Moon (was in Leo at that time)  In 1997 a decision was made to hold on to the big but let go of the small state enterprises. Although it was interpreted as privatizion by western commentators, the management was stil beholden to the communist party. 

In 2002 China joined into the World Trade Organization (WTO). In 1980, the share of trade (exports less imports)  in China’s GDP was 15 per cent, in 2005 it exceeded 70 per cent. As China grown, it has come to matter much more to the rest of the world. For the first time of in history, it is now contributing more to global GDP growth than the United States. 

Another point is to be considered that, Hu Jintao became president in 2002 and Mr. Wen became prime minister the following year, then the two men have shiftted official rhetoric and policy to the left and have boosted central-government support for the poor and marginalised. In a speech of Mr. Wen, he pointed out “social justice”, a term which is dear to the left. 

These two crucial elements could be seen as the progression of 11th house Sag in the natal China. The sign of Sag means of new avenues open to social change in the eleventh house. This is the house of hopes and future and Sag is one of the signs who demonstrates the ability and enthusiasm for future and happy end. Potentially the 11th house, as the natural place of Aquarius, is expected tending more to decentralization and more emphasis for the individual rights. Expansion of property rights for both urban residents and farmers has become a critical issue in the Chinese politics. Until Mr. Jiang, who left the office as the party’s military chief,  there was no political rift between Mr. Jiang and Mr. Wen. However, the constitutional revisions in 2004 gave a new direction for property law.

 

To be continue...